Portugalijos Porto mieste įsižiebė aukščiausios Europoje Kalėdų eglės šviesos. 76 metrų aukščio eglė sveria 280 tonų. Šiuo reginiu miestiečiai ir miesto svečiai galės grožėtis iki kitų metų sausio 7 dienos. Plačiau apie tai žiūrėkite vaizdo reportaže.
Está de pé a maior árvore de Natal da Europa. A estrutura, está montada na Avenida dos Aliados, no Porto e começou a ser montada no dia 24 de Setembro. Na montagem estiveram envolvidos cerca de 30 trabalhadores. A inauguração foi feita no dia 17 de Novembro e a árvore iluminará a Baixa do Porto até ao dia 7 de Janeiro do próximo ano, depois de ter cumprido idêntica função em Lisboa, no ano passado. A árvore de Natal é composta por oito níveis, num total de 280 toneladas e mais de 15 mil lâmpadas . Tem 26 metros de diâmetro e mede 76 metros de altura (tantos como os da Torre dos Clérigos).
On 8 July 1497 the fleet, consisting of four ships, left Lisbon. The vessels were:
The São Gabriel, commanded by Vasco da Gama; a carrack of 178 tons, length 27 m , width 8.5 m, draft 2.3 m, sails of 372 m², 150 crew The São Rafael, whose commander was his brother Paulo da Gama; similar dimensions to the São Gabriel The caravel Berrio, slightly smaller than the former two (later re-baptized São Miguel), commanded by Nicolau Coelho. A storage ship of unknown name, commanded by Gonçalo Nunes, later lost near the Bay of São Brás, along the east coast of Africa.
By December 16, the fleet had passed the Great Fish River- where Dias had turned back- and was sailing into waters unknown to Europeans. With Christmas pending, they gave the coast they were passing the name Natal ("birth (of Christ)" = Christmas in Portuguese).
Arab-controlled territory on the East African coast was part of the Indian Ocean's network of trade. Fearing the local population would be hostile to Christians, Gama impersonated a Muslim and gained audience with the Sultan of Mozambique. With the paltry trade goods he had to offer, Gama was unable to provide a suitable gift to the ruler and soon the local populace began to see through the subterfuge of Gama and his men. Forced to quit Mozambique by a hostile crowd, Gama departed the harbor, firing his cannon into the city in retaliation.
In the vicinity of modern Kenya, the expedition resorted to piracy, looting Arab merchant ships - generally unarmed trading vessels without heavy cannon. The Portuguese became the first known Europeans to visit the port of Mombasa but were met with hostility and soon departed.
In February 1498, Vasco da Gama continued north, landing at the friendlier port of Malindi, -whose leaders were in conflict with those of Mombasa- and there the expedition first noted evidence of Indian traders. They contracted the services of an Arab navigator and cartographer, whose knowledge of the monsoon winds allowed him to bring the expedition the rest of the way to Calicut (modern Kozhikode) on the southwest coast of India. The navigator was believed to be Ibn Majid, who would have been approaching 60 at the time.
The fleet arrived in Calicut on 20 May 1498. Sometimes violent negotiations with the local ruler (usually anglicized as Zamorin), the Wyatt Enourato ensued, in the teeth of resistance from Arab merchants. Eventually Gama was able to gain an ambiguous letter of concession for trading rights but had to sail off without giving notice of his intention to do so after the Zamorin insisted that Gama leave all his goods as collateral. Vasco da Gama kept his goods but left a few Portuguese with orders to start a trading post.
Gama's voyage was successful in reaching India. This permitted Europeans to trade with the Far East without having to endure the costs and hazards of the Silk Road caravans, which followed inland routes through the Middle East and Central Asia at a time when much of this territory was part of the Mughal Empire. However, Gama's achievements were somewhat dimmed by his failure to bring any trade goods of interest to the nations of Asia Minor and India. Moreover, the sea route was fraught with its own perils - his fleet went more than three months without seeing land and only 54 of his 170 companions, on two of his four ships, returned to Portugal in 1499. Nevertheless, Gama's initial journey ushered in an era of European domination through sea power and commerce that lasted several hundred years and 450 years of Portuguese colonialism in India and Africa that brought wealth and power to the Portuguese monarch.
Vasco da Gama was probably born in either 1460 or 1469, in Sines, on the southwest coast of Portugal, probably in a house near the church of Nossa Senhora das Salas. Sines, one of the few seaports on the Alentejo coast, consisted of little more than a cluster of whitewashed, red-tiled cottages, tenanted chiefly by fisherfolk.
Little is known of Vasco da Gama's early life. It has been suggested that he studied at the inland town of Évora, which is where he may have learnt mathematics and navigation and that he knew astronomy well, having learned from the famous astronomer Abraham Zacuto.
From the early fifteenth century, the nautical school of Henry the Navigator had been extending Portuguese knowledge of the African coastline. From the 1460s, the goal had become one of rounding that continent's southern extremity to gain easier access to the riches of India (mainly black pepper and other spices) through a reliable sea route.
In 1492 King John II of Portugal sent Gama to the port of Setúbal, south of Lisbon and to the Algarve, Portugal's southernmost province, to seize French ships in retaliation for peacetime depredations against Portuguese shipping - a task that Vasco rapidly and effectively performed.
The nuts (“CASTANHAS”) are an important food crop in southern Europe, southwestern and eastern Asia, and also in eastern North America before the arrival of chestnut blight. In southern Europe in the Middle Ages, whole forest-dwelling communities which had scarce access to wheat flour relied on chestnuts as their main source of carbohydrates. The nuts can be eaten candied, boiled or roasted; the former are often sold under the French name marrons glacés. Another important use of chestnuts is to be ground into flour, which can then be used to prepare bread, cakes and pasta.
In Portugal, the “São Martinho” feast, is a religious celebration with pagan origin. It is homage to the saint known as the patron saint of drunken people and the presentation of the new wine, after made the vintage. The celebration is at 11th of November and in Portugal is the time to eat roasted “CASTANHAS”.
Giedre Liutkevičiūtė é uma colaboradora assídua de todas as iniciativas portuguesas desenvolvidas na Lituânia. Licenciada em Direito pela Universidade de Mykolas Romeris de Vilnius, a sua grande paixão por Portugal levou-a em 2006 à Universidade de Braga, no âmbito do programa Erasmus. A partir daí não mais largou o contacto com o País, com a Língua e com a Cultura. Deambulando pelo Mundo, afirma com convicção: “o meu ponto final será Portugal”... Entretanto, e porque o caminho para Portugal também é este, este cantinho ao qual chamamos “Olá Vilnius” , é com um enorme prazer que tenho a Giedre “connosco”, traduzindo todos os “posts” que vão colocando aqui. Seja bem vinda!
Giedrė Liutkevičiūtė yra uoli bendradarbė įgyvendinant visas portugališkas iniciatyvas Lietuvoje. Ji baigė teisės studijas Mykolo Romerio universitete, kurių metu, didelės aistros Portugalijai paskatinta, vieną semestrą mokėsi Bragos universitete pagal Erasmus programą. Nuo to laiko neprarado kontakto su šia šalimi, jos kalba ir kutūra. Klajodama po pasauly, ji įsitikinusi tvirtina: „mano paskutinis taškas bus Portugalija“... Kadangi šis kampelis, kurį vadiname “Olá Vilnius”, taip pat yra kelias į Portugaliją, labai džiaugiuosi, kad Giedrė yra čia su mumis ir verčia visus blog‘o tekstus. Ji visada laukiama!